Dr. Steven M. Bloom is Professor of Practice at NDU’s Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy. Previously he taught at USMA. In his prior Wall Street business career, Dr. Bloom served as Senior Vice President for the NASDAQ Stock Market in charge of its Financial Products division. At National Economic Research Associates, he served as Senior Consultant in Securities and Finance, and at the American Stock Exchange he served as Chief Economist, Senior Vice President for Equity Research, and Vice President for New Products Development. To help commemorate the 20th anniversary of SPDRs and Exchange Traded Funds, in January 2013, he was honored to ring the opening bell on the trading floor of the NYSE for his contributions to the creation, development, and popularization of ETFs worldwide. He holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University, and co-authored “The Economics of National Security” chapter of Jordan, Amos A, William J. Taylor, Michael J. Meese and Suzanne C. Nielsen, American National Security, 7e, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press (2018).